The overconfidence effect occurs when our subjective confidence in our capability is beyond our objective performance. This means we overestimate our ability to do something in a way that we don't even consider other aspects that may bring setbacks in our performance.
This can also be seen in planning fallacy , when a person overstimate the time it will take them to complete a particular task.
Remember that time when you were told about the class test that would take place in 2 weeks but instead of studying early you decided to study two days before a class test because you believed you can do all the work in that short time.
This is the Overconfidence in your own ability.
the correct answer is d