Bourgon and Armstrong's study concluded that the principles of "risk", "need", and "responsitivity" are linked with the effectiveness of a treatment aimed to reduce reoffending.Risk: Characteristic of a biological and psychological level that is associated with a higher likelihood of a negative outcome.Need: Characteristic associated with the sensation of lacking something.Responsitivity: Characteristic associated with the individual's willingness to receive external stimuli or information.
However, the effectiveness of the treatment is hindered by the fact that the individual is in prison.
Their study separated 620 unprisoned individuals into 2 groups. 482 prisoners received treatment and 138 were left untreated. Results showed that prison-based treatment can be useful in the efforts to reduce recidivism. Additionally, there are minimum levels of treatment necessary in order to gain results. These depend heavily on an individuals "risk" and "need" factor.
there are isolated pockets of farming, generally around rivers and oases, which are used for irrigation.