The Commercial Revolution lead many feudal and local entities to be diminished or disappeared entirely, but some reinvented themselves to become absolutist monarchies and national states. This violent process contributed to the Wars of Religion.
This culminated in the Thirty Years War (1618–48), within the Holy Roman Empire between German Protestants and their allies (Sweden, Denmark, France) and the Holy Roman Emperor and his Habsburg allies. It began as a religious war, but ended as a struggle for national superiority.
The Thirty Years War in Europe was caused by the Renaissance. It was because of the events that happened in the earlier century.
As the name implies, this war lasted for thirty years. The war began in 1618 and ended in 1648. This war was caused by events that occurred a century earlier. In the 16th century Renaissance war born or rebirth. Renaissance is a term for the development of art and science of knowledge.
Humanistic studies are growing rapidly. The rise of art and science posed a threat to the strength of the Catholic Church in Europe. Many artists and scientists opposed the church. They doubted the teaching system. There was no power before, which opposed the representation of Christ on earth. This was compounded by corrupt practices and papal decadence.
The kings who submitted to the Vatican City and the Papacy feeling confusion. Large sums of money and influence are under the command of the Pope. A German Augustinian Friar named Martin Luther attacked papal excesses with his Thirty-Five Limes Thesis. This resistance succeeded in giving birth to the Protestant Reformation which then brought about the beginning of the division in Europe.
The Holy Roman Empire, Spain, and Catholic Germany fought with alliances of Britain, France, the Netherlands, Sweden, and Protestant Germany. This war then ended with the Peace of Westphalia.
If you’re interested in learning more about this topic, we recommend you to also take a look at the following questions:
•The Thirty Years War, the Thirty Years World War, and the thirty years of conflict that was World War I and World War II:
KEYWORD: the thirty years war, renaissance, the cause of the thirty years war
Class: 10 - 12
Subchapter: The Thirty Years War
2) Religious causes
3) to establish an order that guarantees stability in Europe, regardless of religious complaints, sustained on the legal equity of the States, regardless of their size or power.
4) Absolute Monarchy
1) Protestantism, in a broad sense, is linked to any of the Christian groups that emerged in Western Europe that separated from the Roman Church from Martin Luther, founder of the Lutheran churches, and Juan Calvino, founder of the Calvinist movement. Another main aspect of the Reformation, which came into conflict with both the Romanists and other Protestants, is sometimes called the radical or Anabaptist Reformation. In this way, some Western non-Catholic-Roman groups are qualified as Protestants even though the group lacks historical ties with Luther or Calvin.
2) There was a conflict between Catholics and Protestants. One of the main factors that led to the war was the appointment of a Catholic as the new emperor of the Holy Empire, Ferdinand II.
3) The main consequence of the peace of Westphalia was the weakening of the positions of Austria and Spain in Central Europe. At the same time, France, which represented by Cardinal Mazarin, gained numerous territories on its easternmost border, among other places, Metz and Alsace, was very strong. His war with Spain continued until 1659, and ended with the annexation of Roussillon and its promotion to the hegemonic power of the continent, in the peace of the Pyrenees.
The Treaty of Westphalia or meant one of the most important points in European and World History. There, to the East of the Holy Germanic Empire, a modern multilateral Treaty was signed for the first time. For the first time in European history, we talked about nation-states, freedom of religious preaching and international limits.
Winners left France, which during the 30 years War, played 2 sides; Sweden, which intervened in Germany and consolidated as a power. The United Provinces, now called Holland, which after years of rebellion, were recognized as independent.
The Papal States lost most of their power, being Calvinism and Lutheranism recognized as official religions. Spain continued with its slow decline and Austria dragged the defeats of the Catholic League. For the first time, the notion of Homeland and Religion was separated in Europe; From there, Nationalism was born as a not only romantic idea, but also as a fortifying element in a country. That's how it was, how Europe was transformed.
4) The absolute monarchies were the result of the increasing power that the kings were acquiring throughout the fifteenth, sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.
In this type of regime, the monarch and his court controlled all areas of government, including those related to the creation of laws and the application of justice.
To justify the power acquired by the monarch, the theory of the divine origin of kings emerged. This theory pointed out that God had given the king power, so the unlimited power of kings could not be questioned.
At the same time, the king, thanks to divine right, only responded to God for his actions. This theory was created with the objective of maintaining internal order in countries.
conflict between Catholics and Protestants
i only know the first answer
The correct answer is: Conflict between Protestants and Catholics.
It began as a conflict in which the different States in Europe support either The Protestant Reform or The Catholic Counter – Reform between the years of 1618 and 1648. First in was whitin the Holy Roman Empire, then, more European Powers intervened and it became not just a religious conflict but a political one. It ended with the treaties of The Peace of Westphalia.
conflict between Protestants and Catholics
I just took the test
German dispute in the Holy Roman Empire German dispute between the Catholics and Protestants in the Holy Roman Empire
The correct answer is the last option: Conflict between Protestants and Catholics
The violence generated by Protestant and Catholic groups that gave way to burns of places of worship, threats and sabotage in the rituals of worship.
Those states that were in favor of the reform participated, which were Protestants and those that supported the counter-reform, the latter supporting the Catholic Church. First, the war included the German nations that were under the rule of the Germanic Roman Empire. Then it included countries such as: Austria, Denmark, Sweden, France, Spain (Spanish Empire), Portugal (Portuguese Empire) and Switzerland.
Despite this, the Thirty Years War is much more than a conflict between Catholics and Protestants
b. parliament was weaker than the monarchy.