Portuguese were the first Europeans that established a trade relationship with China by travelling across the sea in the year 1517. They initially contacted the rulers of China and planned a mission to Peking, which was undertaken by Tome Pires in the year 1520-1521. They maintained a good relationship but the Chinese rulers did not allow them to pay tribute to the Ming.
By the middle of 1550, some of the Chinese officials gave the opportunity to the Portuguese to settle down in Macao, which later became a medium of trading with China. This is how the Portuguese did trading with the Chinese by exporting and importing spices and other goods.
Thus, the correct answer is option (D).
Instead, they focused on trade with American Indians in present-day New York and New Jersey. They established a fur trade alliance with the Iroquois confederacy, the most powerful Native American empire in 17th-century North America.
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the fighting words doctrine, in united states constitutional law, is a limitation to freedom of speech as protected by the first amendment to the united states constitution. in 1942, the u.s. supreme court established the doctrine by a 9–0 decision in chaplinsky v. new hampshire.
answer: migrations were important in the neolithic period. "two major migrations passing through southeastern europe were confirmed by the means of archaeo-genetic studies."
the first migration was the early neolithic period -- 6,000 before common era (bce) -- when the first farmers, from anatolia -- asia minor -- spread through europe. the second migration occurred during the early bronze age (3,000-2,500 bce) when the so-called "steppe population," from the eurasian steppe, replaced much of northern europe's previous population.
the first farmers of northern and western europe passed through southeastern europe with limited hunter-gatherer genetic admixture, which occurs when two or more previously isolated populations begin interbreeding. however, some groups that remained mixed extensively -- without the male-biased, hunter-gatherer admixture that prevailed later in the north and west, according to latest discoveries. southeastern europe continued to be a nexus between east and west, with intermittent genetic contact with the steppe people up to 2,000 years before the migrations that replaced much of northern europe's population.
"in some places, hunter-gatherers and incoming farmers seem to have mixed very quickly," says iain mathieson, a geneticist at the university of pennsylvania, who was first author of the paper. "but, mostly, the two groups remained isolated, at least for the first few hundred years. these hunter-gatherers had been living there for thousands of years, and it must have been quite a shock to have these new people show up -- with a completely different lifestyle and appearance."