The rule of the byzantine emperor justinian differed from the rule of monarchs in western europe in that a. justinian’s code established a republic. b. justinian’s code limited the monarchy. c. justinian had both political and spiritual power. d. the byzantine church was the ruling power.
He was the leader of both church and state, unlike western powers that were governed by kings and spiritually they listened to the pope.
Justinian had both political and spiritual power.
c. troops marched forward in close formation against newer, more accurate weapons