Nearly twenty-five years ago, the Soviet Union pulled its last troops out of Afghanistan, ending more than nine years of direct involvement and occupation. The USSR entered neighboring Afghanistan in 1979, attempting to shore up the newly-established pro-Soviet regime in Kabul. In short order, nearly 100,000 Soviet soldiers took control of major cities and highways. Rebellion was swift and broad, and the Soviets dealt harshly with the Mujahideen rebels and those who supported them, leveling entire villages to deny safe havens to their enemy.
1. The Industrial Revolution started in Britain in the 1750s. Eventually, it then spread to the European nations, Germany, Belgium, and France, and the US by the 19th century.
2. coal-powered steam engine
3. The enclosure movement fenced off land available to the public. Later on, it forced many farmers off of their own land and it moved them to factory work.
5. An inexpensive process of getting steel from iron
6. it weakened the aristocratic's power and wealth
7.David Ricardo, the writer of the iron law of wages, wrote that the workers should only be paid by subsistence level.
8. There were two classes of capitalism: brougeoisie, owned the means of production, and proletariat, working class
9.textil trade increased demand for slaves and cotton
10. government and imperial support of industrialization
11. lowered likelihood of revolution by improving worker's lives
12. Merchant employers would give producers materials to produce goods in their homes, which the merchant would pay them for and then sell
13.construction of railroad lines that linked the US regions
14.Shifting patterns in fertility and mortality rater. Ex: decline in infant mortality
15.Luddites were handicraft workers that destroyed textile machines that they blamed for low wages. Because they avoided violence against people, they enjoyed considerable support and eventually brought the rights of workers to the attention of England.
16. Eli Whitney created interchangeable parts that were identical and could fit into any assembly line
17. cotton industry
19. They would lure British experts to their land
20. Merchants would sell peasants raw textile fibers and sometimes equipment to make goods. They later pay the peasant and the sell the item made for profit. Cotton, a cash crop, was the key to industrialization
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Perestroika or De-Stabilization meant the complete purge of all things Stalin has created. A lot of his statues were taken down all over the Soviet Union. Also Stalingrad was re-named to Volgograd. It also focused on several points to weaken the stress on the Soviet People to give them a little bit more free will. In fact during Gorbachev reign you could finally travel to some places.
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The war impacted Soviet politics in four reinforcing ways: (1) Perception effects: it changed the perceptions of leaders about the efficacy of using the military to hold the empire together and to intervene in foreign countries;
Unions emerged to mediate the relationship between workers and employees and ensure that workers' rights would be guaranteed.
A worker alone has less bargaining power with his boss. In this way, trade unions jointly negotiated working conditions such as time and wages (1).
In addition, trade unions negotiated physical conditions of work, avoiding abuses that could endanger workers' health (2).
Finally, a third point was that the unions facilitated the search for jobs (3), intermediation between the needs of the sectors and the workers suitable for each sector.
Upon Lenin's death, Stalin was officially hailed as his successor as the leader of the ruling Communist Party and of the Soviet Union itself.
small european communities with shared traditions consolidated into large new states (apex)