The answer is 2013 Edward Snowden leaks
Edward Snowden is an ex CIA American whistlebower who leaked classified information by copying from the National Security Agency(NSA) in 2013 while working with the CIA. His disclosures include leaked information on US spy agency collecting telephone data records of many Americans. The report shows the NSA was collecting data from a telecommunication company named Verizon daily.
d. NSA; exile in the US and asylum in Russia
Edward Snowden is a former employee and contractor of the Central Intelligence Agency (mostly referred to as CIA). He didn't liked lot of things that were going on behind closed doors, so he decided to publish some of the highly classified information from the National Security Agency, thus becoming a so called whistle-blower. The US officials got very angry because of this and they wanted to capture, charge, and imprison him, and still do. Snowden though already made his escape plan, though it was highly risky considering that he chose Russia as his destination for seeking asylum. Luckily for him, Russia accepted granted him asylum and protected him and still does from the US.
Edward Snowden is considered a "Patriot of Free Press" due to his act of exposing USA government's habit of mass surveillance during times of democracy. After he published these NSA documents, there was a paradigm shift in the coverage of national security information.
As an informant of secret and illegal government activity, he put himself at great risk for the public good. On his own, he triggered a global reconsideration over the limits of government surveillance and the protection of our basic individual rights.
After in 2013 the NSA surveillance program was declared unconstitutional, it was considered that Snowden should be givem complete freedom from prosecution, as well as the possibility to continue with his life in America with total normality.
On the other hand, he was considered a "Traitor under the Espionage Act". According to federal government, he stole government property and violated sections 793(d) and 798(a)(3) of the Espionage Act. For this crime, people can face prison sentences of a maximum of thirty years.
Although officials identified Snowden as a traitor, he was not accused of treason, and is not intended to be so, since such crime demands that a person really wages war against USA or conspires against US by making alliances with the countrie's enemies.
Option D=> The Fourth Amendment.
The Fourth Amendment is an amendment act that is meant to protect people's rights. The statement of the the Fourth Amendment is quoted below;
''The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, Shall not be violated and no Warrant Shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by Oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.''
During the time Edward Snowden was working with the Central Intelligence Agency, he revealed some top secrets that has to do with national security and one of what he revealed is the one given in the question.
What the National Security Agency (NSA) did was unconstitutional because of the Fourth Amendment that is to say people have the rights to their privacy and the right to know if infomation are being collected with regards to their privacy.
PRISM (surveillance operation)
PRISM is a code name for a program under which the United States National Security Agency (NSA) collects internet communications from various U.S. internet companies. The program is also known as the SIGAD US-984XN. PRISM collects stored internet communications based on demands made to internet companies such as Google LLC under Section 702 of the FISA Amendments Act of 2008 to turn over any data that match court-approved search terms. The NSA can use these PRISM requests to target communications that were encrypted when they traveled across the internet backbone, to focus on stored data that telecommunication filtering systems discarded earlier, and to get data that is easier to handle, among other things.
according to the denotation of “repeat,” history can’t repeat itself. (and if you want to get technical and into chaos theory, neither can anything else.) unlike lab-controlled experiments that can be exactly replicated (although not really), humans are life is always evolving and unpredictable and involves incalculable symbiotic relationships.
but, if we consider “repeat” as both a metaphor and in terms of its connotation, we can understand what people mean by “history repeats itself,” and it actually emerges as a useful conceptual tool. as mark twain put it, “history does not repeat itself, but it does rhyme.”
the vast, vast majority of people don’t in anyway think that history literally, exactly repeats itself. such would violate celebrated philosophies of free will. when people say that history repeats itself, they are generally thinking of broad patterns. another way to describe these patterns or relationships would be to describe them as cause and effect relationships. they are thinking about the existence of and continuation of
social movements, to list only a few of the repeated/unending phenomena of human history.a more specific example could be that every step forward in the long african-american civil rights movement has resulted in new forms of discrimination. lynching, disenfranchisement, and neo-enslavement (collectively called “jim crow”) replaced codified plantation and urban enslavement after the civil war and reconstruction era. today, the “new jim crow” (a system where by at least 1 out of every 3 black men are confined in the criminal justice system) replaced jim crow after the modern civil rights movement of the 1940s, 50s, and 60s.
people remain “babies” on the evolutionary ladder – we are greedy, shortsighted, and quick to buy into fear of “the other.” spending time trying to argue that history doesn’t repeat is ultimately not very productive for historians, a debate primarily involving semantic differences.
furthermore, if nothing “repeated,” it would quickly become impossible to study anything. much of what we study is about relationships between times and places. on the other hand, if we “dig deep,” language repeats all the time per se. if we had to relearn language every day, we would never progress. by saying “history repeats,” we are recognizing the ways in which we are bound to this world and products of it. this is not to say that nothing ever improves or changes.
as historians, we can and should use the real meanings behind notions that history repeats to students enjoy and embrace the study of our world. indeed one of the many reasons i enjoy studying history, as i tell students in my “what is history? ” lecture, is that history is comforting and allows us to see the world as a more steady place. according to the news and joe public, crime, poverty, you name it, are worse now than it ever has been. if we look at historical evidence, we can find that such fears are unnecessary. likewise, every generation says the previous generation had it better or older adults long for the time when they were adolescents when the world was a better, safer place (i call this the myth of the utopia past).
finally, although human events can never come close to any kind of true replication, history belongs to both the liberal arts and the sciences. that history is a liberal art needs no explanation. that history is also a science, however, is where i tend to meet objections.
scientists follow the scientific method. they follow a series of steps to ensure their work is the best it can be given current resources. don’t historians do this? historians come up with questions, look for evidence, analyze evidence, weave in secondary material, write and edit, edit some more, and then go through peer-reviewers both informally and formally. this is indeed the historian’s equivalent of the scientific method. historical narratives or theories about the past are no more or less theories or narratives as human evolution or the big bang, for example. all scholarship involves theory and explanation based on evidence.
likewise, for reasons i haven’t fully grasped or studied yet, science tends to have more credibility with the public. people tend to perceive history as always changing, unstable, and inherently biased by “crazy, liberal academics.” in reality, science changes just as much, is just as unstable, and has just as many biases. in other words, history and any of the specific branches of science are all social constructions- both the discipline themselves and scholarship produced. by promoting the study of the past as a science, perhaps historians would have more automatic credibility.
be sure to check out: the nature of history and the history of history, i am many things but a “history buff” is not one of them. – hidden power of words series, #14, and my other postings about history, too!
apartheid, (afrikaans: “apartness”) policy that governed relations between south africa's white minority and nonwhite majority and sanctioned racial segregation and political and economic discrimination against nonwhites. people should not get this wrong. i was just answering a question.