D. Principle of inclusions
The principle of inclusion states that fragments of rocks found in other rocks are older than the present rocks that contains them.
The principle sheds light on the relationship between fragments of rocks found in some rock types. For the fragments to have been embedded in the present rock type, it must have definitely be in existence before the present rock type forms.
This principle is used in relative dating of rocks.
2. "James Hutton" is the scientist who is credited with proposing the principle of uniformitarianism. The correct option is the first option.
3. According to the principle of cross-cutting relationships, an intrusive rock body is younger than the rocks into which it intrudes. The correct option is the last option.
3. A worm would would stand a poor chance of being fossilized because worms have no hard parts. The correct option among all the options that are given in the question is the third option.
1. principle of uniformitarianism, 2. worms have no hard parts
The principle of uniformitarianism suggests that the geological processes occurring in the past were in the same manner and with the same intensity that as they occur in the present. Therefore, the phrase "The present is the key to the past" rephrases the principle of uniformitarianism.
A worm cannot be fossilized because it does not possess hard parts like bones, shells, teeth as other organisms exhibit. They have tube like body with soft tissues, which gets completely decomposed by microbes after death.
1- The geological processes that shape Earth's features today
are basically the same as they were in the geologic past.
Explanation: We know that there are many geological processes that shape up or alter the surface of Earth. Some of these processes include Erosion, Weathering, Plate tectonics and Volcanic eruptions etc. These process are static, they were the same in the past thus giving us this Earth we see now with relatively different features and these processes will further bring changes to Earth's features. The processes remain the same only their intensity differs.
2- James Hutton proposed the principle of Uniformitarianism
Explanation: James Hutton was a renowned geologist, he gave the concept of Uniformitarianism. This concept links with the answer of first part of your question, the only difference is that this theory talks about changes that occurs within the Earth crust, whereas the answer of first part discussed the visible Earth features. This theory states that the changes in earth crust occurs due to some static and ongoing geological processes, which we discussed earlier. Earth's features which we can see along with those which occurs within the Earth crust are both the consequence of geological processes which gradually bring changes.
3- According to the principle of cross-cutting relationships, an intrusive rock body is younger than the rocks into which it intrudes.
Explanation: To understand this answer you need to know what cross-cutting relationship of rocks is. Lets take an example of the volcano surrounded with volcanic rocks. Whenever, Magma from volcanoes flows down, they intrudes into the spaces or cracks present between the already existing rocks. After some time, when this magma cools down it becomes a rock, but this rock remains within those already existing rocks. This also explains that the newly made rocks within the already existing rocks are younger than the later. This is what we call a cross-cutting relationship.
b. The principle of uniformitarianism
The present is the key to the past" is a condensed formulation of the principle of uniformitarianism.
Everything is correct except number 15.
According to the law of cross-cutting relationships, in a geological feature where an igneous rock body is intruded by any intrusive body such as a fault and d(i)kes, then the intrusive bodies are considered to be younger than the surrounding igneous rock.
In the given condition, the basalt is the older surrounding rock which is being cut across by a fault, and this follows the principle of cross-cutting relationship.
Thus, the correct answer is option (B).