Explanation: Since proteins are being used but energy is not, this process is called facilitated diffusion. Protein channels and carriers are both types of facilitated diffusion.
The answer is D
I just guessed and got it right
-Q. How do membrane proteins aid in the movement of hydrophilic substances across the membrane?
Transport proteins spanning the plasma membrane facilitate the movement of ions and other complex, polar molecules which are typically prevented from moving across the membrane from the extracellular or intracellular space.
Lipids are composed of fatty acids which form the hydrophobic tail and glycerol which forms the hydrophilic head; glycerol is a 3-Carbon alcohol which is water soluble, while the fatty acid tail is a long chain hydrocarbon (hydrogens attached to a carbon backbone) with up to 36 carbons.
Their polarity or arrangement can give these non-polar macromolecules hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties. Via diffusion, small water molecules can move across the phospholipid bilayer acts as a semi-permeable membrane into the extracellular fluid or the cytoplasm which are both hydrophilic and contain large concentrations of polar water molecules or other water-soluble compounds. The hydrophilic heads of the bilayer are attracted to water while their water-repellent hydrophobic tails face towards each other- allowing molecules of water to diffuse across the membrane along the concentration gradient.
Similarly via osmosis, molecules of water pass through the membrane due to the difference in osmotic pressure on either side of the phospholipid by layer this means that the water moves from regions of high osmotic pressure/concentration to regions of low pressure/ concentration to a steady state.
Transmembrane proteins are embedded within the membrane from the extracellular fluid to the cytoplasm, and are sometimes attached to glycoproteins (proteins attached to carbohydrates) which function as cell surface markers. Transport proteins are transmembrane proteins involed in moving molecules across the membrane.
There are two types:Channels or pores are filled with water, enabling charged molecules to diffuse across the membrane, from regions of high concentration to regions of lower concentration down the concentration gradient -this is a passive part of facilitated diffusion. Channels may undergo minor changes to become open or closed whereas pores are always in open states e.g. H2O movement into and out of the cell via aquaporins.Carrier proteins bind specifically bind to molecules and move them across or against concentration gradients. Unlike facilitated diffusion, carrier proteins directly or indirectly use energy in the form of ATP and modify solute specific regions, that aid in regulating ion exchange, through the hydrophobic layer of the plasma membrane- this is called active transport. e.g. Na+/K+transported by the enzyme ATPase
Learn more about membrane components at
Learn more about plasma membrane transport at
Question: The model shows two types of proteins, channels and carriers, allowing the movement of molecules into the cell. As indicated by the model, what question is best asked about the role of the proteins in this type of transport? A) How can proteins be used in active transport? B) How do proteins allow for endocytosis of large molecules? C) How can molecules move against the gradient through proteins? D) How do proteins allow for facilitated diffusion of molecules into the cell?
The question will be "D) How do proteins allow for facilitated diffusion of molecules into the cell?"
Since proteins are being used but energy is not, this process is called facilitated diffusion. Protein channels and carriers are both types of facilitated diffusion. Simple diffusion does not require energy: facilitated diffusion requires a source of ATP. Simple diffusion can only move material in the direction of a concentration gradient; facilitated diffusion moves materials with and against a concentration gradient.
the offspring would all be white. if the parents are both white flowers then they have the genotype rr, which when crossed results in an all white punnet square.