. why was it useful to be able to verify the source of the water? . why would a neighborhood served by two diff erent water companies be more useful for testing snow's hypothesis than two neighborhoods each with their own source? . epidemiologists often draw causal webs to illustrate the interrelationships among biological, social, and environmental variables that contribute to disease outbreaks. based on what you have learned so far, what variables should be included in a causal web for cholera? . snow considered his conclusions about cholera to be inferences from observations whereas the reviewer from the medical journal considered these to be conjectures. what is the diff erence between inference and conjecture?
1. Private sources of water supply should be tested at least twice a year for total coliforms and E. coli, especially where sources of supply are most likely to be present. risk, ie after the spring thaw and during the rainy autumn period. Analyzes should be performed even if water treatment devices are installed on the water system.
In addition, the water should be subject to additional analysis following any incident that could affect the microbial safety of the reserves, such as sewage backflow or flooding near an area. well. Water should also be analyzed if it changes appearance, taste or smell.
2. To test Snow's hypothesis it would take at least two different water sources, and so the neighborhood would have to be served in water by two different companies.
3. Cholera, caused by the pathogenic strains of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae, is a highly contagious disease, with at least 100,000 cases reported in 2004, mainly on the African continent. The indigenous nature of V. cholerae in the aquatic environment reminds us that this bacterium, before being pathogenic for humans, plays an ecological role in its ecosystem. This latter property implies a direct influence of environmental and climatic conditions on the presence, persistence and abundance of the bacterium in the aquatic ecosystem and thus indirectly on the emergence of cholera in humans.
The main factors favoring outbreaks are of social origin:
the socio-economic level and the living conditions of the populations: poverty, low level of hygiene, difficulties of water supply;
natural conditions and risks: water warming (El Nino phenomena strongly correlated with outbreaks, climatic changes), natural disasters causing floods and corporate disruption (cyclones, earthquakes), etc.
geopolitical environments: armed conflicts, civil wars leading to refugee camps and precarious housing, lack of governance of institutions that limit access to drinking water resources and control of the environment.
4. Inference is a movement of thought from principles to conclusion. It is an operation which makes it possible to pass from one or more assertions, statements or propositions affirmed as true, called premises, to a new assertion which is the conclusion.
A conjecture is an assertion for which no demonstration is yet known, but which is strongly believed to be true, in the absence of a counter-example.
A conjecture can be chosen as a hypothesis or postulate to study other statements.
When a conjecture is demonstrated, it becomes a theorem and joins the list of facts.
==> In some ways, they are opposed in their deduction, the inference starts from principles and the conjecture starts from "conclusions" or hypotheses supposed to be right.
3. Muscle and bones
5. Bone Marrow
6. Perform muscle strengthening exercises regularly
10. Works with bones to transfer vital elements through body
1. The largest organ in the body is the "skin".
The largest body part is either the biggest given body part over all living and wiped out life forms or the biggest case of a body part inside a current species. The biggest creatures on the planet are not by any means the only ones to have vast body parts, with some littler creatures really having one especially amplified territory of the body.
The biggest internal organ is the liver. The biggest external organ, or, in other words biggest organ when all is said in done, is the skin.
2. The answer is "B. long".
Muscle is a delicate tissue found in many creatures. Muscle cells contain protein fibers of actin and myosin that slide past each other, delivering a compression that progressions both the length and the state of the phone. Muscles capacity to deliver power and movement. They are fundamentally in charge of keeping up and evolving stance, velocity, and also development of inside organs, for example, the compression of the heart and the development of nourishment through the stomach related framework by means of peristalsis.
3. A body system includes a number of related "organs" that work together to perform a task.
Organs are collections of tissues with comparative capacities. Plant and creature life depends on numerous organs that coincide in organ systems.
Organs are made out of principle tissue, parenchyma, and "sporadic" tissues, stroma. The principle tissue is what is exceptional for the particular organ, for example, the myocardium, the primary tissue of the heart, while sporadic tissues incorporate the nerves, veins, and connective tissues.
4. The outermost layer of bone is called "D. periosteum".
Periosteum is a thin sheath of connective tissue that energizes legitimate bone development and advancement and conveys blood and supplements to the bones, and it covers a large portion of the bones in your body. As an update, connective tissue will be tissue that enables bolster, to associate, hold together, or separate different tissues. Truth be told, it's less demanding to take note of the few bones that this tissue does not cover! The periosteum doesn't cover the bit of bones that contains articular ligament, or, in other words found in joints that shields the bones from rubbing together. Periosteum is likewise not found on a few of the little bones in your grasp and feet.
5. The answer is "C. Bone marrow".
Bone marrow is a semi-strong tissue which might be found inside the supple or cancellous bits of bones. In feathered creatures and warm blooded creatures, bone marrow is the essential site of fresh recruits cell generation or hematopoiesis. It is made out of hematopoietic cells, marrow fat tissue, and steady stromal cells.
6. The answer is "B. Perform muscle-strengthening exercises regularly."
Grown-ups should also do muscle-strengthening exercises that are moderate or high power and include all real muscle bunches on at least 2 days seven days, as these exercises give extra medical advantages.
Muscle-strengthening exercises furnish extra advantages not found with oxygen consuming movement. The advantages of muscle-reinforcing action incorporate expanded bone quality and strong wellness. Muscle-reinforcing exercises can likewise help keep up bulk amid a program of weight reduction.
7. The answer is "D. Hyperdermis".
The skin and its embellishment structures make up the integumentary framework, which furnishes the body with generally speaking insurance. The skin is made of numerous layers of cells and tissues, which are held to fundamental structures by connective tissue. The more profound layer of skin is very much vascularized (has various veins). It additionally has various tangible, and autonomic and thoughtful nerve filaments guaranteeing correspondence to and from the mind.
8. "Osteoarthritisis" a condition that can begin when the cartilage that pads bones in a joint begins to wear down.
Osteoarthritis is the most well-known type of joint pain, influencing a great many individuals around the world. It happens when the defensive ligament on the closures of your bones wears out after some time.
Osteoarthritis side effects can as a rule be viably overseen, in spite of the fact that the fundamental procedure can't be switched. Remaining dynamic, keeping up a sound weight and different medicines may moderate movement of the infection and help enhance torment and joint capacity.
NSAID-nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
Most NSAIDs block both Cox-1 and Cox-2 enzymes. They include the over-the-counter drugs: Aspirin (Bufferin, Bayer, and Excedrin)Ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin, Nuprin)
Given that low Birth Weight The University of Maryland Medical Center considers "low birth weights" to be those that are less than 5.5 lb or 2495 g
X - birth weight is N(3152, 693.4)( gms)
a) If a birth weight is randomly selected, what is the probability that it is a "low birth weight"?
= Prob (X<2495 gm)
b) Find the weights considered to be significantly low, using the criterion of a birth weight having a probability of 0.05 or less.
P(Z<z) = 0.05 when z=-1.645
X = gms
ie. if birth weight is less than 2011.357 gms the weight is considered to be significantly low.
c) 2495 gms of low birth weights show a probability of 0.l717 which is not unusual
But below 2011 gms is a rare event.
You will find that Naproxen is an NSAID (Non-Sterioid Anti-Inflammatory Drug)
science-ocean floors and habitats study guide by volleyballqueen3817 a major advance in ocean-floor mapping. list four sections of the ocean floor. algae that use sunlight to produce their own food through photosynthesis. all of the feeding relationships that exist in a habitat. drying out, predators, find food.